CAMPARI: Là quy tắc trong phân tích tín dụng. Quy tắc này áp dụng khi tín dụng ngân hàng đánh giá, phân tích về khoản vay của khách hàng.
-C: Character (Tư cách) ở đây phân tích tư cách khách hàng
-A: Ability (Năng lực người đi vay)
-M: Margin (lãi suất)
-P: Purpose (Mục đích vay)
-A: Amount (số tiền vay)
-R: Repayment (sự hoàn trả hay phân tích về khả năng thanh toán khoản vay)
-I: Insurance (bảo đảm tín dụng)
Nguồn: Thành viên trantrung – webketoan
Còn dưới đây là một phần nội dung thảo luận trên webketoan trước đây đã có
Thực ra thì 2 thuật ngữ 5C và 6C đều tồn tại. Thuật ngữ 5C thì chúng ta đã thảo luận còn thuật ngữ 6C về cơ bản được phát triển lên từ 5C.
Cụ thể, 6C bao gồm:
1. Character. The first thing that loan officers look for when reviewing a proposal is evidence of your trustworthiness. Your loan application can be rejected without even reviewing your proposed business idea if loan officers find any evidence in your background indicating lack of integrity. They would ask questions like: “Who are you? How long have you lived where you live? How long have you been in business? Do you live up to your obligations? What is your standing in the community? The answers to these questions will normally come from your business plan and references.
In addition, banks will rely heavily on your credit history. They would want to know if you have always repaid your obligations. If there are noticeable blemishes in your financial, professional or personal background, your chances of getting a loan is significantly reduced. So expect questions like, “What do your suppliers say about you? What about your personal credit history? How will your credit history reflect on your credit future?”
2. Capability to Manage the Business. Banks need to be sure that the person/people making the business decisions know what they are doing. Mismanagement is the foremost reason for the failure of new businesses, and banks naturally would want to avoid that. Loan officers would want to know the professional background, previous business experience, relevant education, and level of success of the business owner. If you have limited experience, you will have more chances in getting a loan if you are a franchisee of an established business, or if you bring in someone with more solid experience.
3. Capacity. If the bank feels that confident about your personal background and your ability to make good judgments when making business decisions, the next step for them is to determine the capability of your business to turn up a profit. They will now ask: “What is your ability to repay the loan? How are the loan proceeds to be used? How will they be repaid?” Banks are particularly interested in: (a) how soon you can generate a positive cash flow; (b) when you will show a profit; (c) how large will it be; (d) whether your profit will be lasting; and (e) whether various assets will be financed via debt or equity. The answers to these questions come from a review of your financial statements, particularly your cash flow statements, profit and loss statements, and personal and corporate tax returns.
4. Collateral and Guarantees. Your collateral is important, but banks put more premium on the potential profitability of your business proposal. Your collateral represents an “escape hatch” for your bank, and banks normally want it to be large enough to be able to cover their losses (if at all) and easily convertible to cash. From your projected cash flow and list of assets, bankers will ask “How can you be sure of your ability to repay the loan? What can you offer the bank as an alternative source of repayment? In most instances, the bank will require the personal guarantees of all principals. Besides providing another source of repayment, it also shows your commitment to the business.
5. Context of the Business. No business exists in a vacuum, and loan officers would look at a number of factors that may potentially impact on your kind of business. They would pay particular attention to potential economic, legal, employee, supplier, or environmental problems. Expect questions like,” What is the state of the economy? Are there environmental issues to be concerned about? How could these affect the financial condition of your business?” Loan officers tend to consider loan applications more favorably if: (a) you are introducing a new product or service with an obvious demand; (b) there is little competition; (c) your market is composed of small independent businesses; and (d) lower rate of failure in your type of business.
6. Conditions or Terms of Loans. The nature of your loan request is another important factor that could affect the results of your application. Banks would want to know three important things: “How much money are you requesting? What will it be used for? and For how long will it be needed?” Banks oftentimes prefer to approve loans for items that can be identified, has lasting value, and can be repossessed and sold if things fail.
Đúng là về nguyên tắc thì không nên xem trọng C nào cả nhưng thứ tự ưu tiên xem xét thì có!!! Đó là vấn đề mang tính thực tế hơn là lý thuyết!!!
Character: Uy tín và đạo đức của khách hàng
Capacity: Năng lực vay và trả nợ của khách hàng
Cash flow, Capital: Vốn, dòng tiền…
Collateral: Tài sản bảo đảm
Conditions: điều kiện kinh tế, xã hội v.v..